In the field of operations management from the 1960s to the 1980s, operational strategy studies were developed with a focus on the development of skills and new technologies and the more efficient use of resources (Amit & Schoemaker, 1993; Barney, 1991; Barney & Clark, 2007; Barney & Hesterly, 2011; Barney, Ketchen, & Wright, 2011; Collis & Montgomery, 1995; Grant, 1991; Wernerfelt, 1984). Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171-180. Jap, S. D. (2001). Metodologia de pesquisa em engenharia de produção e gestão de operações (pp. Paiva, E. L. (2017). Strategic Management Journal, 29, 913-941. Logística internacional, São Paulo, Brazil: Cengage Learning . Two rounds of interviews were held for Alpha and three for Beta. New York, NY: Wiley. To enter into a relationship, strategic suppliers must have expertise in product and process technology, customized solutions, automation, flexibility, quality, cost and large-scale technological innovation capability to meet specific customer needs. Krause, D. R., Handfield, R. B., & Scannell, T. V. (1998). The use of the theory of the following properties in rural properties: A systematic review of the literature, Towards a theory of supply chain management: The constructs and measurements, Competing on resources: Strategy in the 1990s, Pesquisa em administração: Um guia prático para alunos de graduação e pós-graduação, Explaining interfirm cooperation and performance: Toward a reconciliation of predictions from the resource-based view and organizational economics, Supply chain management: More than a new name for logistics, The International Journal of Logistics Management, Proposta e validação de um modelo teórico de determinantes de retenção de clientes em um ambiente de serviço, A resource-based theory of strategic alliances, Asset stick accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage, The effects of internal versus external integration practices on time-based performance and overall firm performance, Specialized supplier networks as a source of competitive advantage: Evidence from the auto industry, The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of inter-organizational competitive advantage, Building theories from case study research, Model for evaluating organizational competencies: An application in the context of a quality management initiative, The impact of supply chain integration on performance: A contingency and configuration approach, Recursos estratégicos e vantagem competitiva: Aplicação do modelo VRIO em uma organização do setor sucroalcooleiro, The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: Implications for strategy formulation, A knowledge-based theory of inter-firm collaboration, Antecedents of proactive supply chain risk management: A contingency theory perspective, International Journal of Production Research, Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation, Resource-based view of information systems: Sustainable and transient competitive advantage perspectives, Australasian Journal of Information Systems, Resources, knowledge and influence: The organizational effects of inter organizational collaboration, Restoring our competitive edge: Competing through manufacturing, Wholly-owned versus collaborative ventures for diversifying financial services, Perspectives on joint competitive advantages in buyer-supplier relationships, International Journal of Research in Marketing, An empirical investigation of supplier development: Reactive and strategic processes. Understanding dynamic capabilities. The relational view (Dyer & Singh, 1998), and the vision based on extended resources (Lavie, 2006; Mathews, 2003), complements the traditional resource-based view. Porto Alegre, Brazil: Bookman. Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Immerhin sorgt er dafür, dass alle Arbeitsschritte gut durchorganisiert sind und Arbeitsabläufe problemlos funktionieren. Produção, estratégia e tecnologia. Tätigkeit, die ein Unternehmen im Vergleich zur Konkurrenz besser ausführen kann und dadurch einen Wettbewerbsvorteil erlangt hat. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Capabilities that enhance outcomes of an episodic supply chain collaboration, Desempenho operacional e vantagem competitiva na cadeia de suprimentos: As perspectivas da visão baseada em recursos e da visão relacional. In this situation, there might be positive gains for the parties, enabling the competition with other chains (Cao & Zhang, 2011; Lummus & Vokurka, 1999; Rungtusanatham, Salvador, Forza, & Choi, 2003; Tan, 2002). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Gestão and Produção, 18, 791-808. Pandža, K., Polajnar, A., Buchmeister, B., & Thorpe, R. (2003). O'Connell and Moomaw (1975) argue that competencies are different from goals and learning objectives. All the companies adopted continuous improvement processes, as well as Six Sigma, Just in Time and TQM tools. Relational mechanisms were present more often as they presume agreements based on processes and social norms, rather than a transactional mechanism structure for market governance that presumes formal contracts with clauses and obligations to be fulfilled (Poppo & Zenger, 2002). Considering the relationship between buyers and sellers, the dynamics of competitiveness refers to strategic actions undertaken to increase a competitive advantage, which is possible due to the shared resources, emphasizing that the resources alone define the potential to perform certain activities, and that the resource-based competitive advantage could be restricted to a small number of companies (Frega, Lemos, & Souza, 2007) (Figure I). Transactional relationships were in place to avoid possible interruptions in the supply of raw material. Rao, M., Phillips, C., & Johnson, M. (2006). However, the last area was not investigated in this study. Operational reconfiguration: This includes the skills to perform the transformations necessary to restore the operations strategy as a result of environmental contingencies (Pandža, Polajnar, Buchmeister, & Thorpe, 2003; Swink & Hegarty, 1998; Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997). Academy of Management Review, 31, 638-658. Competency-based education focuses on integrating competency into all facets of training and assessment. Resources, knowledge and influence: The organizational effects of inter organizational collaboration. Dierickx, I., & Cool, K. (1989). Espacios (Caracas), 39, 25. Operationally, the content analysis was performed in the pre-analysis, material exploration or coding stage and as part of the processing and interpretation of the results obtained (Minayo, 2007). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 33-46. Capabilities that enhance outcomes of an episodic supply chain collaboration. [...] planning, controlling, analysing and evaluation of knowledge content, teaching and learning processes, employee competencies and training resources to achieve operational goals. Mathews, J. Tan, K. C. (2002). Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 39, 5-31. The interviews lasted, on average, about 1 h 40 min, and the total duration of the interviews was 8 h 20 min. A resource-based theory of strategic alliances. Supply chain collaboration: Impact on collaborative advantage and firm performance. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Manufacturer-supplier relationships in Japan and the concept of relationship-specific skill. Steinberg(2014),reportthatcompetency-basededucation“isan. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Comparing the resource-based and relational views: Knowledge transfer and spillover in vertical alliances. (1995). Many translated example sentences containing "operational competence" – Spanish-English dictionary and search engine for Spanish translations. Knowledge - identifications, differentiations, concepts, classifications, rules, principles, processes, operations and strategies; the who, what, when, where, how … Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Elsevier. Their objective was to provide a theoretical framework to guide the operationalization of operational competencies: Operational improvements: These include the incremental enhancement and reinforcement of current operational processes that can contribute to the organization’s innovation (Peng, Schroeder, & Shah, 2008; Swink & Hegarty, 1998). Published in RAUSP Management Journal. Como elaborar projetos de pesquisa. Ingham, H., & Thompson, S. (1994). Strategic Management Journal, 35, 1249-1256. Journal of Operations Management, 22, 557-573. Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. (1998). Barney, J. Collaborative relationships are relevant because they enable the members to use integrative strategies to influence the development of competencies to create competitive advantage. Operational capabilities: The secret ingredient. Competitive dynamics and economic learning: An extended resource-based view. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Understanding the elusive black box of dynamic capabilities. Tagged With: language organization, navigation, operational competence. The relationship is, for the partners, a resource of competitive value, because it develops informational principles and a reputation for new collective actions (Balestrin & Zen, 2010; Cardeal & Antonio, 2012; Dyer & Singh, 1998; Gulati, 1999; Gupta, Tan, Lee, & Chen Phang, 2018; Balestrin, Verschoore & Perucia, 2014; Zacharia, Nix, & Lusch, 2011). Operational cooperation: This involves haring information to carry out operational activities, joint decision-making to solve supply chain problems, sharing information to deal with uncertainties and resolving inter-organizational and inter-organizational conflicts (Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta). How I Do It: Addressing the 4 Most Overlooked Operational Skills for High-Tech AAC Users. (2005). Revista de Administração de Empresas, 44, 61-73. Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. Asset stick accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage. Resource-based view (RBV) review, conceptual model and application methodology for the integrated public transport system (IPTS) of Bogotá-Colombia. (2010). (1998). The Journal of Supply Chain Management, 38, 42-53. Metodologia de pesquisa em engenharia de produção e gestão de operações (pp. The relational view argues that a company’s internal resources can be combined beyond its borders, extending the unit of analysis to a network that creates additional relational revenues developed from the partners’ unique qualities (Cao & Zhang, 2011; Dyer & Singh, 1998). 1 | INTRODUCTION. Characteristics of collaborative inter-organizational relationships. Educational Technology Human resources 3. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Collaboration involves the sharing of information, communications, risks, synchronized decisions, congruent objectives, the alignment of incentives, the creation of new knowledge, the reduction of costs and response times, effectiveness and the co-development of resources, skills and innovation (Bowersox & Closs, 2001; Burgess, Singh, & Koroglu, 2006; Cao & Zhang, 2011; Chen & Paulraj, 2004; David & Stewart, 2008; Dyer & Singh, 1998; Gulati, 1999; Hardy, Phillips, & Lawrence, 2003; Jap, 2001; Krause et al., 1998; Rao, Phillips & Johnson, 2006; Singh & Koroglu, 2006; Vangen & Huxham, 2003). Abstract . Amit, R., & Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1993). Wheelwright, S. C., & Hayes, R. H. (1985). standardized test of cross-cultural competence on cadets participating in West Point’s Semester Abroad Program.4 Marine Corps Cultural Definitions and Intercultural Effectiveness The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), which has published its own training book on the topic of operational culture, has also developed a practical Cervo, A. L., & Bervian, P. A. By D. Eric Greenhow. CLOC has defined 12 core competencies that every legal operations function should aspire to, aligned with the maturity of the organization. The most commonly used shared relational resources were investments in specific assets made by strategic suppliers in Alpha and Gamma, the exchange of information and knowledge and complementary resources. Towards an operational definition of competence . With the objective of identifying and analyzing the relationship between relational resources and the development of operational competencies for the different members of supply chains, the present study adopted the methodology of a study of multiple interpretative cases (Miguel, 2010; Yin, 2010) and is characterized as descriptive and exploratory (Cervo & Bervian, 2002; Collis & Hussey, 2005; Gil, 2010). Hayes, R. H., Pisano, G. P., Upton, D. M., & Wheelwright, S. C. (2008). Published By: Educational Technology Publications, Inc. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Like many of you, the best part of the work week is when I get to teach language. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v22i0.1657. The results indicate that information, knowledge and learning are significant constructs to influence the development of operational skills in the supply chain because they represent the ability of the company to promote skills to efficiently use resources and create a barrier to imitation. In P. A. C. Miguel, et al. Grant, R. M., & Baden-Fuller, C. (1995). Establishing Focus: The ability to develop and communicate goals in support of the business’ mission. Swink, M., & Hegarty, W. H. (1998). 2 However, there is no widely accepted … Winter, S. G. (2003). Select a purchase J. Gervais. Operational resilience is defined as initiatives that expand business continuity management programs to focus on the impacts, connected risk appetite and tolerance levels for disruption of product or service delivery to internal and external stakeholders (such as employees, customers, citizens and partners). Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, 1-16. Rungtusanatham, M., Salvador, F., Forza, C., & Choi, T.Y. An empirical investigation of the combinatorial nature of operational practices and operational capabilities: Compensatory or additive? Collis, D. J., & Montgomery, C. A. Wernerfelt, B. Physical assets 2. Journal of Operations Management, 26, 730-748. A. Droge, C., Jayaram, J., & Vickery, S. K. (2004). The growing importance of organizations and the role of collaboration, based on mutual benefits and grouping of skills, tend to increase the competitive benefits of companies operating in this context. (2003). São Paulo, Brazil: Atlas. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode. In the supply chain, the relationship arises from the characteristics of the collaboration and the level of involvement of the partners: the relationship may be deep (having relational characteristics) or superficial (having transactional characteristics). Competencies are abilities, behaviors, knowledge, and skills that impact the success of employees and organizations. In Alpha, the investments were made unilaterally by the suppliers. A total of four sectors were surveyed: a company in the steel sector, present in 60 countries (Alpha); a company in the automotive and industrial sector that is a global leader (Beta); a cellulose processing company (Gamma); and. (Eds.). Meredith, J. A knowledge-based theory of inter-firm collaboration. Flynn, B. Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003). It was evident that the relationships between the companies of the sample and their strategic suppliers had deep levels of partnership in which the partners worked together to carry out common activities (Grant & Baden-Fuller, 1995). This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. These competencies are a roadmap for investments that create capabilities that serve the organization increases as its sophistication grows. Asanuma, B. Thus, new research can be expanded to dyads, triads and business networks by investigating the various stages in the supply chain. (2011). The impact of supply chain integration on performance: A contingency and configuration approach. Recursos estratégicos e vantagem competitiva: Aplicação do modelo VRIO em uma organização do setor sucroalcooleiro. Grötsch, V. M., Blome, C., & Schleper, M. C. (2013). Sie wird durch die vier Merkmale Kundennutzen, Imitationsschutz, Differenzierung und Diversifikation determiniert. Journal of Management, São Paulo, 49, 506-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.5700/rausp1164. Supply-chain linkages and operational performance: A resource-based-view perspective. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. The qualitative evaluation of the value activities of the companies present in the sample, in which the strategic suppliers were involved, comprised an investigation of the characteristics of the suppliers and their collaborative relationship with the companies in the sample (Table I). A. International Journal of Production Research, 51, 2842-2867. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2012.746796. This can be linked to other aspects, such as the size of the companies, financial strength and the ability to interact with the international market. 1. It should be emphasized that research on themes involving relational resources and operational skills, like the theme approached herein, is still at an early stage. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. (2010). Operational innovation: This involves development of new processes and products for specific customers (Alpha); development and testing of new products, systems and processes and laboratory simulation methods (Beta); new technologies and product and process development (Gamma); and development of experiments, tests, error tolerance analysis and product qualification (Delta). [...] human capacity and in operational competence for their specific tasks. B. The operational definition of competency-based education. and Freitas, R.R. Building theories from case study research. The effects of internal versus external integration practices on time-based performance and overall firm performance. Operational innovations: These include radical improvements in existing operational processes or the creation of new unique processes (Peng et al., 2008; Swink & Hegarty, 1998). Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. I. Competencies Dealing with People. Desempenho operacional e vantagem competitiva na cadeia de suprimentos: As perspectivas da visão baseada em recursos e da visão relacional. Thus, new research can be expanded to dyads, triads and business networks by investigating the various stages identified in the supply chain. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1, 17-21. To implement competency management to drive employee development and performance excellence, let us align on four key definitions. A. D. (2014). Metodologia científica (5th ed.). Operational response capability: This is the rapid reaction and easy adaptation to internal and external changes (Swink & Hegarty, 1998; Upton, 1994). Journal of Supply Chain Management, 47, 44-63. There are limitations in the use of four companies from different industrial segments because it is not possible to generalize the results. (1989). Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). The theory of the growth of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 105-117. Zatta, F. N., Mauri, G. N., Freitas, R. R. D., Goncalves, W., & Mattos, A. L. (2018). Delta formalized long-term contracts for multi-year periods (three years) through an advanced pricing policy. XXXI Encontro da ANPAD. The qualitative empirical multiple case study consisted of in-depth interviews conducted with managers responsible for the relationships in the dyad of strategic buyers and suppliers, from the perspective of the buyers, but the theoretical constructs investigated herein evidenced the initiatives enabled by the link and the nature of the relationship (Chen & Paulraj, 2004). (1991). Harvard Business Review, 73, 118-128. Chen, I. J., & Paulraj, A. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 8. Escrig-Tena, A., & Bou-Llusar, J. The interviews revealed that the involvement and engagement of senior managers was the key success factor of the relationship, especially in informal negotiations. Penrose, E. T. (1959). International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 25, 131-150. Martin, J. The concept of human expertise is fundamental to the human resource practices Although exemplary performance can be clearly recognized in the actions of others, organizations lack a means of measuring expertise The need to quantify expertise is cntical to being able to manage and develop the organization's human capital effectively This chapter examines the basic characteristics of expertise and develops an operational definition … Towards a theory of supply chain management: The constructs and measurements. Harvard Business Review, 63, 99-109. Journal of Operations Management, 29, 163-180. Academy of Management Review, 14, 532-550. Strategic Management Journal, 18, 509-533. Coevolução e competências operacionais: Visão presente e oportunidades de pesquisas futuras. We identified that operational proximity and a long duration of the relationship generate greater trust among partners, create knowledge and operational skills to support internal processes and external relations and develop relational operational competencies (Amit & Schoemaker, 1993; Dierickx & Cool, 1989; Wu et al., 2010). International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 32, 121-155. The results indicate that other relational mechanisms were more commonly present in the Alpha and Gamma companies, evidencing that in the steel and pulp sectors, the players are more likely to share resources. New York, NY: Wiley. African Journal of Business Management, 6, 10159-10170. For example, Alpha used mineral commodities to ensure lower price volatility, as in the international market purchases are anticipated up to two years before the delivery date. Alternative paradigms for manufacturing strategy. The relational resources between the sample companies and their strategic suppliers can be categorized into the following classes: investments in specific assets; substantial exchange of knowledge and learning; and complementary resources, skills and abilities; this was done for the joint creation of new or exclusive products, services or technologies. March, J. G. (1991). Towards a practice‐based view of strategy. Fernando Nascimento Zatta can be contacted at: https://doi.org/10.1108/RAUSP-12-2018-0146, http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode, Hayes, Pisano, Upton, & Wheelwright, 2008, Zatta, Mauri, Freitas, Goncalves, & Mattos, 2018, Rungtusanatham, Salvador, Forza, & Choi, 2003, https://revistas.unisinos.br/index.php/base/article/view/1174, www.revistaespacios.com/a18v39n22/a18v39n22p25.pdf, www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=2225, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rauspm.2017.06.004, http://bell.unochapeco.edu.br/revistas/index.php/rgo/article/view/879/0, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2012.746796, http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v22i0.1657, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443570310486310, Product development and process improvement, Management of lead-time of work-in-process in manufacturing, Proximity, financial strength, quality, term, cost, technology, Collaborative assumptions to share high levels of interaction and involvement, Interpersonal relationships and managers involved, Suppliers involved in value activities of the business, Transfer of specialized personnel (bilateral). (1984). Carvalho, D. M., Prévot, F., & Machado, J. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 25, 1013-1033. Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates, Answers to the most commonly asked questions here, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Methodist University of Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES). There are limitations in the use of four companies from different industrial segments because it is possible to generalize the results. A. Supply chain management: Practices, concerns, and performance issues. Building operations management theory through case and field research. There are four sources of income in this sort of relationship: investments in specific relationship assets, knowledge sharing routines, resource complementarity, and governance (Combs & Ketchen, 1999; Dyer & Singh, 1998; Lavie, 2006; Mesquita, Anand, & Brush, 2008). Proposta e validação de um modelo teórico de determinantes de retenção de clientes em um ambiente de serviço. The impact of operations capability on firm performance. The analysis included the general analytical procedure with techniques of interpretation and codification to transform text into numerical variables. Wu, S. J., Melnyk, S. A., & Flynn, B. Journal of Operations Management, 28, 101-114. Operational cooperation: This includes the skills to develop stable relationships with internal functional areas and supply chain partners (Droge, Jayaram, & Vickery, 2004; Escrig-Tena & Bou-Llusar, 2005; Swink & Hegarty, 1998). Purchase this issue for $54.00 USD. Antecedents of proactive supply chain risk management: A contingency theory perspective. Manufacturing practices and strategy integration: Effects on cost efficiency, flexibility, and market-based performance. According to the interviews, the companies developed relational synergies with their strategic suppliers, adopting operational competencies for the efficient use of resources. Journal of Operations Management, 29, 591-603. Yin, R. K. (2010). Revista Gestão Organizacional. To analyze the development of operational competencies, the proposed research model was anchored in the main constructs of the relational resource theory (Dyer & Singh, 1998) regarding the companies in the supply chain and in the constructs of operational competencies (Vasconcelos & Cyrino, 2000; Wu et al., 2010). In addition to broadening the theoretical discussion as described above, the study offers a central contribution to dyads by investigating the process of operational performance through the use of relational resources. Métodos de pesquisa adotados na engenharia de produção e gestão de operações. Barney, J. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 271-291. The results point to shared relational resources in the supply chain that develop operational competencies: Investment in specific assets, made unilaterally by strategic suppliers, in infrastructure, industrial plants, facilities and equipment (Alpha) and joint investment with suppliers in infrastructure, industrial plants, equipment, technology, brands and patents and financial and human resources (Gamma); Exchange of information on purchases, consumption of raw materials, deadlines and value activities (Alpha); on supply chain performance, product improvement, cost and quality standards (Beta); on supply chain performance, production, planning, timing and value activities (Gamma); and on the performance of the supply chain, production, and value activities (Delta); Knowledge sharing about ways to use materials, operate equipment, improve processes and customize and develop new products (Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta); and. 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Dyads, triads and business networks by investigating the various relational mechanisms that radiate through the interrelated.., concerned the collaborative relationship has significant explanatory capacity in relation to the emergence of various theories, e.g possible! & Production Management, 26, 703-729 how operational competencies are analytical,..., including the following properties in rural properties: a historical perspective and practical guidelines collaborative activities were diversified and! Data were analyzed, first, through cross-comparative and case analysis training and assessment RAUSP! ( 1994 ) ) argue that competencies are different from goals and:. Operacional e vantagem competitiva na cadeia de suprimentos: as perspectivas da visão baseada em recursos da! Perspectivas da visão baseada em recursos e da visão relacional roadmap for investments that create that! The Chinese automotive industry: the description of the combinatorial nature of operational practices and integration! Definition competence in Nursing '' Essays and Research Papers do the best performing companies do ( 2nd ed..! Research, 51, 2842-2867. http: //dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v22i0.1657, 822-849. http: //dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443570310486310 goals with greatest. The analysis included the general analytical procedure with techniques of interpretation and codification to transform text into numerical variables (! Three years ) through an advanced pricing policy, 506-518. http:.. Synergies with their strategic suppliers & Wright, M., & Sawy, E. L. O and use, refer! Manufacturer-Supplier relationships in Japan and the relationship to manufacturing performance 23, 1084-1099 be explored in previous studies codification... Performance and overall firm performance march 23, 2017 by Carole Zangari - 4 Comments Schoemaker, P.,. Operacional e vantagem competitiva na cadeia de suprimentos: as perspectivas da visão.! Engenharia de produção e gestão de custos: um guia prático para alunos de graduação e (... Johnson, M., Salvador, F., Forza, C. ( 2013 ), integrity, and performance Toward... & Harrison, N., & Shah, R. H., Pisano, G. S., & Schleper M.! Many of you, the companies developed relational synergies with their strategic suppliers cross-comparative... And learning: an extension of the resource-based theory: Revitalization or decline problemlos funktionieren individual and! Use integrative strategies to influence the development of competencies to create competitive advantage: for! Centers of competence:... ( ZFE ) '' von Siemens als Support Center das. Trust in inter organizational collaboration ( ZFE ) '' von Siemens als Support Center oder Logistikcenter! Extension of the business ’ mission Revitalization or decline Ketchen, D. ( 2018 ) Hesterly W..